Scandale de mauvaise gestion à la BAD/Pourquoi Adesina risque son poste

Economie

Le Président de la BAD Akinwumi Adesina est au centre d’une accusation accrue de favoritisme, de corruption et autre forme de non-respect des règles de l’Institution. Depuis des mois, des lanceurs d’alerte, très engagés, n’ont cessé de dénoncer ses pratiques et ont exigé une enquête indépendante. Ils viennent d’avoir gain de cause par une décision du Bureau des Gouverneurs. Mais qu’en est-il au juste ? Quelques éléments de compréhension du dossier où le Président de la BAD risque gros.

Par Germain Séhoué

Il y a du grabuge à la Banque africaine de développement (BAD) en ce moment. Un groupe d’agents a saisi le Comité d’Ethique pour dénoncer les pratiques du Président de l’Institution panafricaine, Akinwumi Adesina. Ce Comité est un organe officiel de la BAD dont la mission est de vérifier le caractère éthique de tout ce qui est fait dans la banque, aussi bien par personnel que par les dirigeants, y compris le premier responsable. Il y a donc un code d’éthique adopté que chacun doit respecter. Et le personnel s’est rendu compte que le premier responsable a enfreint un certain nombre de règles et a saisi le Comité d’Ethique. Dans ce Comité, il y a des membres ou administrateurs régionaux (africains) et des administrateurs non régionaux (occidentaux blancs : américains, allemands, français, etc.).

Lorsque le groupe de personnel a écrit à ce Comité, la réaction du Président et de ses hommes a été de répandre de fausses rumeurs pour discréditer les deux membres non régionaux qui semblaient être indépendants vis-à-vis du Président. Ainsi, l’un de ces deux administrateurs a démissionné. Et pour le remplacer, au lieu de prendre un membre non-régional comme le démissionnaire, c’est plutôt un régional, un Africain, qui est coopté. Or, l’on sait que dans ce Comité, les Africains penchent pour le Président Adésina. Le Comité a donc estimé qu’il n’y a pas de preuve aux allégations des plaignants et a classé l’affaire sans suite. Car, de son côté, le Président a écrit un mémorandum pour répondre aux critiques qui ont été formulées contre lui.

Mais estimant eux aussi que le Président a soudoyé le Comité d’Ethique pour qu’il renvoie l’affaire sans suite, les plaignants ont produit un autre document plus vigoureux pour étayer leurs accusations. Sûrs de leur affaire, le 9 mai 2020, ils ont également saisi le  Bureau des Gouverneurs, c’est-à-dire des ministres des Finances, pour qu’une enquête indépendante soit entreprise.  

Ce document intitulé « Un Comité d’Ethique complice de la conduite contraire à l’Ethique du Président Adésina », adressé au Bureau des Gouverneurs (l’organe suprême de la BAD), est une réponse point par point à ce mémorandum et plus de lumière sur le dossier pour justifier leur insistance et le maintien de leur position. Au regard de la forfaiture du Comité d’Ethique, qui ne trouve pas de preuves contre le Président, le groupe d’agents mécontents, appelé lanceurs d’alerte, a décidé de passer la vitesse supérieure en saisissant l’organe suprême de la BAD, le Conseil des Gouverneurs, pour une enquête indépendante.

C’est à cette requête que le Bureau du Conseil des Gouverneurs du Groupe de la BAD, présidé par la ministre ivoirienne du Plan et du Développement, Kaba Nialé, a apporté une réponse positive, vendredi 5 juin 2020, en autorisant « une revue indépendante du rapport du Comité d’Ethique des conseils d’administration concernant les allégations examinées par le Comité d’Ethique et les éléments fournis par le Président du Groupe dans l’intérêt d’une procédure en bonne et due forme ».  

On peut donc dire que le groupe de lanceurs d’alerte vient de remporter une victoire en ce sens que selon le communiqué de la Présidente Kaba Nialé, cette enquête ou « revue indépendante doit être menée par une personne neutre, intègre, de haut calibre ayant une expérience incontestable et une réputation internationale avérée, dans un délai de deux à quatre semaines maximum ».   

La ministre, Kaba Nialé, Présidente du Bureau du Conseil des Gouverneurs de la BAD.

Le Bureau du Conseils des Gouverneurs a dû prendre la mesure de la gravité de l’affaire, vu que dans sa note d’insistance, le groupe de mécontents de la BAD a précisé que « Nous sommes un groupe de membres du personnel de la BAD, inquiets de l’évolution de la gouvernance de l’Institution. Le 19 janvier 2020, nous avons fait part de ces préoccupations au Comité d’Ethique du Conseil d’Administration en divulguant 16 cas illustrant la manière dont le Président a pu enfreindre le Code de conduite des administrateurs auquel il est tenu. »

En vérité, le Bureau du Conseils des Gouverneurs s’est rendu compte que les lanceurs d’alerte étaient assis sur du solide. C’est pourquoi ils ont exposé dans leur document intitulé « Un Comité d’Ethique complice de la conduite contraire à l’Ethique du Président Adésina », « les limites du rapport et montré pourquoi une enquête indépendante est nécessaire de toute urgence ».

Ainsi, parmi les griefs allégués, on peut noter, le manque de confidentialité pour certains dossiers, le manque de transparence pour d’autres, des interférences extérieures, l’interférence directe du Président, le non-respect des règles et règlements internes en matière de recrutement, la nomination de Mme Chinelo Anohu-Amazu, la nomination et la promotion de M. Martin FREGENE, la mauvaise gestion du Programme TAAT, la démission de M. David Ssegawa, etc.

Il y a donc de la matière et le groupe de lanceurs d’alerte a prévenu en ces termes : « Nous nous réservons le droit de reprendre nos efforts pour exposer le manque d’éthique du Président Adésina si un membre du personnel devrait avoir des ennuis à cause de nos actions ». Il y a vraiment du grabuge à la BAD, c’est pourquoi les Gouverneurs montent au créneau. Si cette enquête confirme les dénonciations examinées, le Président Adésina devrait en pâlir. Les lanceurs d’alerte, c’est un contre-pouvoir indispensable contre les abus pour sauver l’outil commun.  

Le Président du Groupe de la Banque africaine de développement Akinwumi Adesina est dans la tourmente. Il est élu le 28 mai 2015 Président de l’Institution et a pris officiellement fonctions le 1er septembre 2015. Il succède au Rwandais Donald Kaberuka à la tête de la BAD le 1er septembre 2015.

Nous y reviendrons.

Germain Séhoué

gs05895444@yahoo.fr

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