Covid-19/ L’industrie aéronautique survivra-t-elle? Questions pathétiques d’une pilote ivoirienne

Economie Politique

L’industrie aéronautique est de plus en plus sinistrée. La Covid-19 y fait des ravages. Dans le texte suivant, Jennifer Yhaye, une pilote de ligne ivoirienne, décrit cette situation vraiment préoccupante.

Par Jennifer Yhaye, pilote de ligne

Une question que je me suis posée depuis le jour de mon dernier vol.

Pourtant, dans mon esprit, ce ne serait que dans quelques semaines et nous serions de retour dans le match.

Eh bien, cela fait 4 mois depuis le 23 mars et les questions continuent de monter.

  • Quand volerons-nous à nouveau?
  • Combien d’emplois supplémentaires seront perdus?
  • Quand les choses reviendront à la normale, qui fera voler tous ces avions au sol?
  • Pendant ce temps, l’entretien des avions est-il effectué régulièrement?
  • Quand seront mes prochaines vacances? (parce que d’une manière ou d’une autre, le COVID-19 a dépouillé certains d’entre nous de notre banque de congés.)

Ce dont nous devons tenir compte ici, c’est de l’avenir.

  • Le recyclage de toute cette force de travail au ralenti
  • Le coût des mesures préventives COVID-19
  • L’état mental des [ex] employés qui ont vu leur vie être considérée comme un passif envers une entreprise à laquelle ils se sont engagés
  • L’expansion plausible mais improbable des flottes dans le monde entier.

Selon les propos tenus par Alexandre de Juniac (PDG de l’International Air Transport Association) lors du briefing IATA Media sur COVID-19 du 9 juin (voir lien), les pertes dans l’industrie cette année seront les plus importantes de l’histoire, avec plus de 84000000000 $ (je le tape numériquement pour un effet dramatique) en 2020 et près de 16 milliards de dollars en 2021.

Le redémarrage des opérations «normales» nécessiterait que les gouvernements et les compagnies aériennes travaillent ensemble pour appliquer universellement les nouvelles directives de l’OACI (Organisation de l’aviation civile internationale), et il pourrait leur falloir jusqu’à 20 ans pour régler les différences.

La dernière fois que la situation a été aussi critique, c’était pendant le 9/11 [pour vous donner une certaine perspective]

Présentement, où se situe la croissance de ma carrière? Certains pilotes étaient si proches d’une mise à niveau. Certains avaient des entreprises latérales sur le point de se lancer

Et certains, sinon tous, ont le manque de voler!

Plus de questions. Très peu de réponses à ce jour.

Jennifer Yhaye, pilote de ligne

Cependant, bien que l’image globale semble pour le moins difficile, gardons à l’esprit que l’industrie aéronautique est connue pour sa résilience. Une haute saison et des progrès se font sentir. Deux saisons élevées consécutives et peut-être pouvons-nous commencer à espérer des bonus annuels à la fin de l’année? (Ok c’est un peu irréaliste).

Jusque-là, restons là pendant que nous continuons à chercher des réponses.

Et vous savez ce qu’on dit, nous volerons à nouveau.

Source: La page de l’Auteure.

Spread the love
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •  
  •   
  •   
  •   
  •  
  •   
  •   
  •  

239 thoughts on “Covid-19/ L’industrie aéronautique survivra-t-elle? Questions pathétiques d’une pilote ivoirienne

  1. scoliosis
    hey there and thank you for your information – I’ve definitely picked
    up anything new from right here. I did however expertise several technical issues using this
    site, as I experienced to reload the web site lots of times previous
    to I could get it to load correctly. I had been wondering if your web hosting is OK?
    Not that I am complaining, but sluggish loading instances times will very frequently affect your placement in google
    and could damage your high quality score if ads and marketing with Adwords.
    Anyway I am adding this RSS to my email and can look out for a lot more of your respective interesting
    content. Ensure that you update this again very soon. scoliosis

  2. Fascinating blog! Is your theme custom made or did you download it from
    somewhere? A design like yours with a few simple adjustements would really make my blog stand out.

    Please let me know where you got your theme. Many thanks

  3. Hello, I think your blog might be having browser compatibility
    issues. When I look at your blog in Opera, it looks fine but when opening
    in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping. I just wanted to give
    you a quick heads up! Other then that, great
    blog!

  4. Thanks a bunch for sharing this with all people you really recognize
    what you’re speaking approximately! Bookmarked.
    Kindly additionally seek advice from my website =). We will
    have a hyperlink alternate arrangement between us

  5. After looking into a handful of the articles
    on your website, I seriously like your way of blogging.

    I book-marked it to my bookmark website list and will
    be checking back soon. Take a look at my website as well and let me
    know how you feel.

  6. I’m excited to uncover this web site. I need to to thank you for your
    time due to this fantastic read!! I definitely loved every little bit of
    it and i also have you saved to fav to check out new information on your web site.

  7. We wish to thank you again for the lovely ideas you offered Jesse when preparing her post-graduate research as well as, most importantly, for providing the many ideas in one blog post.
    Provided we had been aware of your web-site a year ago,
    we may have been kept from the nonessential measures we were employing.
    Thanks to you.

    Visit my site Pure Keto Burn Reviews

  8. My coder is trying to convince me to move to .net from PHP.
    I have always disliked the idea because of the expenses. But he’s tryiong none the less.
    I’ve been using Movable-type on a number of websites for about a year and am
    worried about switching to another platform.
    I have heard great things about blogengine.net. Is there
    a way I can transfer all my wordpress posts into it? Any kind of help would be really
    appreciated!

    Feel free to surf to my website :: Vigor Max Male
    Enhancement Review – http://www.koan.at

  9. Definitely believe that which you said. Your favorite reason seemed to be on the net the easiest thing
    to be aware of. I say to you, I certainly get annoyed while people consider worries that they plainly do
    not know about. You managed to hit the nail upon the top as well as defined out the whole thing without having side-effects , people could take a signal.
    Will probably be back to get more. Thanks

    My blog post Viking XL Keto BHB Review

  10. Hi there! I realize this is kind of off-topic however
    I needed to ask. Does running a well-established blog
    such as yours take a large amount of work? I am completely new to running a blog however I do write
    in my diary on a daily basis. I’d like to start
    a blog so I will be able to share my experience and feelings online.

    Please let me know if you have any kind of recommendations or tips for new aspiring blog owners.
    Thankyou!

    My site The Skin Company Cream Review

  11. hey there and thank you for your information ? I?ve certainly picked up anything new from right here.
    I did however expertise some technical points using this website, since I experienced
    to reload the website a lot of times previous to I could get it to load correctly.

    I had been wondering if your web hosting is OK? Not that I am complaining,
    but sluggish loading instances times will often affect
    your placement in google and can damage your high quality score
    if ads and marketing with Adwords. Anyway I?m adding this RSS to my email and could look out for much
    more of your respective fascinating content.
    Make sure you update this again very soon..

    Look into my blog post :: Erorectin Pills

  12. Greetings from Colorado! I’m bored to tears at work so I
    decided to browse your blog on my iphone during lunch break.
    I really like the information you present here and can’t wait to take a look when I get home.
    I’m shocked at how quick your blog loaded on my cell phone ..
    I’m not even using WIFI, just 3G .. Anyhow, good site!

  13. I feel this is among the most vital information for me.
    And i’m happy reading your article. However wanna statement on few basic issues, The site
    style is wonderful, the articles is truly excellent :
    D. Good task, cheers

    Also visit my web page Blythe

  14. Excellent blog! Do you have any helpful hints for aspiring writers?
    I’m planning to start my own blog soon but I’m a little
    lost on everything. Would you recommend starting with a
    free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many options
    out there that I’m totally confused .. Any recommendations?
    Appreciate it!

    Here is my web-site Aizen Power

  15. I will right away seize your rss feed as I can not in finding your
    email subscription hyperlink or newsletter service. Do you’ve
    any? Kindly let me recognise so that I may subscribe.
    Thanks.

  16. I do accept as true with all of the ideas you have
    presented on your post. They are very convincing and will certainly
    work. Still, the posts are too quick for starters.
    May just you please prolong them a bit from next
    time? Thank you for the post.

    Feel free to surf to my web blog – Ketoroll

  17. When I originally left a comment I appear to have clicked the -Notify me when new comments are added- checkbox and now whenever a
    comment is added I receive 4 emails with the same comment.
    There has to be a way you can remove me from that service?
    Kudos!

    Here is my blog post – Arctos Portable AC

  18. I really like your blog.. very nice colors & theme.
    Did you design this website yourself or did you hire someone to do it for you?
    Plz reply as I’m looking to create my own blog and would like to find out where u
    got this from. many thanks

  19. whoah this weblog is excellent i really like reading your articles.
    Keep up the great work! You already know, a lot of individuals are looking around for this information, you
    could aid them greatly.

    my web page; TetraMale (Willie)

  20. Hi there, just became aware of your blog through Google, and found that it’s really informative.
    I’m gonna watch out for brussels. I’ll appreciate if you continue this in future.
    Lots of people will be benefited from your writing.
    Cheers!

  21. Hi, I think your site might be having browser compatibility
    issues. When I look at your website in Opera, it looks fine but when opening in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping.
    I just wanted to give you a quick heads up! Other then that, terrific blog!

    Here is my web site Sparkling Pure CBD (zawsa.com)

  22. Admiring the persistence you put into your website and in depth information you offer.
    It’s good to come across a blog every once in a while that
    isn’t the same old rehashed information. Great read! I’ve saved your site and I’m including your RSS feeds to
    my Google account.

    Also visit my page; Viking XL Keto BHB (moxos.net)

  23. You could definitely see your skills within the article you write.
    The world hopes for more passionate writers such as you who aren’t afraid to mention how they believe.
    At all times go after your heart.

  24. I will immediately grasp your rss as I can’t to find your e-mail subscription hyperlink or e-newsletter service.

    Do you have any? Please permit me understand so that I could subscribe.
    Thanks.

  25. Definitely believe that which you said. Your favorite justification appeared to be on the internet the easiest thing to
    be aware of. I say to you, I definitely get annoyed while people think about worries
    that they just do not know about. You managed to hit
    the nail upon the top as well as defined out the
    whole thing without having side effect , people could take a signal.
    Will likely be back to get more. Thanks

    Feel free to surf to my web-site … Viking XL Keto

  26. Hi there, I discovered your web site by means of Google whilst searching
    for a similar matter, your website came up, it looks great.
    I have bookmarked it in my google bookmarks.[X-N-E-W-L-I-N-S-P-I-N-X]Hello there, simply become alert
    to your weblog via Google, and found that it is really informative.
    I’m gonna be careful for brussels. I will be grateful for those who continue
    this in future. Numerous folks can be benefited from your
    writing. Cheers!

    Feel free to surf to my homepage … Wawza Gummies

  27. I’ve been browsing online more than 3 hours today, yet I never found any interesting article like yours.
    It is pretty worth enough for me. In my opinion,
    if all website owners and bloggers made good content as you did,
    the internet will be much more useful than ever before.

    My web-site :: Libido Boost Pills

  28. Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it seems
    as though you relied on the video to make
    your point. You obviously know what youre talking about, why waste
    your intelligence on just posting videos to your weblog when you could be giving us something enlightening to read?

  29. May I just say what a relief to find someone who truly understands what they’re talking about
    on The Skin Company web.

    You actually know how to bring a problem to light
    and make it important. More people ought to check this out
    and understand this side of the story. I
    can’t believe you are not more popular since you most certainly have the gift.

  30. Greate article. Keep posting such kind of
    info on your site. Im really impressed by it.[X-N-E-W-L-I-N-S-P-I-N-X]Hi
    there, You’ve performed a fantastic job. I’ll definitely digg it and personally suggest to my friends.
    I’m confident they’ll be benefited from this web site.

    Stop by my site; Arctos Air Cooler

  31. Hi there, I believe your blog may be having internet browser compatibility issues.
    When I look at your site in Safari, it looks fine however when opening
    in Internet Explorer, it has some overlapping issues.
    I simply wanted to give you a quick heads up! Apart from that, excellent website!

    Here is my blog: vip5.moisait2021.ru

  32. This design is spectacular! You most certainly know how to keep a reader
    entertained. Between your wit and your videos, I was almost
    moved to start my own blog (well, almost…HaHa!) Fantastic
    job. I really loved what you had to say,
    and more than that, how you presented it. Too cool!

  33. It’s really a cool and useful piece of information. I am glad that you just shared this helpful information with
    us. Please keep us up to date like this. Thanks for sharing.

  34. Hello There. I found your blog the use of msn. This is an extremely smartly written article.
    I will make sure to bookmark it and come back to read extra of
    your helpful info. Thanks for the post. I’ll certainly return.

    My blog: Primiene

  35. Hey there just wanted to give you a quick heads up and let you know a few of the
    pictures aren’t loading properly. I’m not sure why but I think its
    a linking issue. I’ve tried it in two different browsers and both show the same outcome.

    Here is my web blog – diclelife.com

  36. Good – I should definitely pronounce, impressed with your site.
    I had no trouble navigating through all tabs as well as related info ended
    up being truly easy to do to access. I recently found what I hoped for before you know it in the least.
    Quite unusual. Is likely to appreciate it for those who
    add forums or something, web site theme . a tones way for your customer to communicate.
    Excellent task.

    Feel free to visit my web-site Xtreme Shred Reviews

  37. Good day very nice blog!! Guy .. Excellent .. Wonderful ..
    I’ll bookmark your blog and take the feeds also…I am happy
    to search out a lot of useful information here in the put up, we’d like work out extra techniques on this regard, thank you for sharing.

    Feel free to visit my blog Hydrofirm Reviews

  38. I would like to thank you for the efforts you have put
    in penning this site. I really hope to view the same
    high-grade blog posts from you in the future as well. In fact, your
    creative writing abilities has encouraged me to get my very own site now 😉

  39. I think everything posted made a great deal of sense. But, what about this?
    suppose you added a little information? I ain’t suggesting your content isn’t good, but suppose you added a headline that makes people want more?
    I mean Covid-19/ L'industrie aéronautique survivra-t-elle?
    Questions pathétiques d'une pilote ivoirienne – Bienvenue sur LHorizonInfos.net is a little vanilla.
    You might look at Yahoo’s front page and note how they write post headlines to
    get people to open the links. You might add a video
    or a picture or two to grab readers excited about
    everything’ve got to say. In my opinion, it might make
    your posts a little livelier.

    Also visit my web page; Maximum Recall Ingredients

  40. I was wondering if you ever considered changing the page
    layout of your website? Its very well written; I love what youve got to
    say. But maybe you could a little more in the way of content so people could connect with
    it better. Youve got an awful lot of text for only having
    1 or 2 pictures. Maybe you could space it
    out better?

    Here is my homepage; Infinuity CBD Price

  41. you are in reality a good webmaster. The website
    loading pace is amazing. It seems that you are doing any unique trick.

    Furthermore, The contents are masterwork. you have done a wonderful
    task on this matter!

  42. Wow, marvelous blog format! How lengthy have you been running a blog for?
    you made blogging glance easy. The Skin Company Cream whole look of your web site is fantastic, let
    alone the content![X-N-E-W-L-I-N-S-P-I-N-X]I just couldn’t go away your website prior to suggesting that I actually loved the standard info an individual provide in your visitors?

    Is going to be again often to check up on new posts.

  43. Hi there, I found your web site by way of Google at the same time as searching for a related subject, your web site got here up,
    it appears to be like good. I’ve bookmarked it
    in my google bookmarks.[X-N-E-W-L-I-N-S-P-I-N-X]Hello there,
    just changed into aware of your weblog through Google,
    and located that it’s truly informative. I am going
    to watch out for brussels. I will appreciate if you happen to proceed this in future.
    Numerous people can be benefited out of your writing.
    Cheers!

    My site – shihan.com.ru

  44. Right here is the perfect webpage for everyone who really wants to find out about this topic.

    You understand a whole lot its almost tough to argue with you (not that I really would want to…HaHa).
    You certainly put a new spin on a subject which has been written about
    for many years. Wonderful stuff, just wonderful!

    Feel free to surf to my website clubriders.men

  45. Merely to follow up on the update of this topic on your web page and
    want to let you know simply how much I valued the time you took to create this valuable post.
    Inside the post, you really spoke of how to seriously handle this thing with all convenience.
    It would be my own pleasure to collect some more concepts from your web-site and come up to offer people what I learned
    from you. Many thanks for your usual good effort.

    Here is my webpage – Summer Valley CBD Gummies Review

  46. Wow, awesome weblog layout! How lengthy have you ever been running a blog for?
    you make running a blog glance easy. The whole glance of your
    site is great, as well as the content![X-N-E-W-L-I-N-S-P-I-N-X]I just could not depart your web
    site prior to suggesting that I actually loved the standard info a person provide on your
    guests? Is going to be back often in order to check out new posts.

    Also visit my webpage http://www.ravenhawksmagickalmysticalplaces.com

  47. This is very interesting, You’re a very skilled blogger.
    I have joined your feed and look forward to seeking more of
    your fantastic post. Also, I have shared your web site in my social networks!

    Here is my web page – Synaptic IQ

  48. Heya i’m for the primary time here. I found this board
    and I in finding It really useful & it helped me out a lot.
    I’m hoping to provide something again and help others like you helped me.

    my website NeoPodz

  49. It’s the best time to make some plans for the future
    and it is time to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I wish to suggest you some interesting things or tips.
    Perhaps you could write next articles referring to this article.
    I want to read more things about it!

  50. I was recommended this web site through my cousin.
    I am no longer positive whether or not this submit
    is written by way of him as nobody else recognize such specific about my problem.
    You’re incredible! Thank you!

    Take a look at my web blog: Biodermeux

  51. Greetings I am so grateful I found your webpage, I really found you by accident, while I was looking
    on Aol for something else, Anyways I am here now and would just like to say thank
    you for a marvelous post and a all round entertaining blog (I also love the theme/design), I don’t have time
    to browse it all at the minute but I have saved it and also added your
    RSS feeds, so when I have time I will be back to read a great deal more,
    Please do keep up the excellent job.

    Feel free to surf to my site – ACV Rx Side Effects

  52. We would like to thank you just as before
    for the stunning ideas you gave Jeremy when preparing a post-graduate
    research and also, most importantly, with regard to providing every one of the ideas in one blog post.
    Provided that we had been aware of your website a year ago, we’d have
    been rescued from the unnecessary measures we were implementing.
    Thanks to you.

    Look into my blog Far East XL Review

  53. Please let me know if you’re looking for a author for your blog.
    You have some really good articles and I believe I would be a
    good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d absolutely
    love to write some articles for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine.

    Please blast me an email if interested. Cheers!

    my web blog Maximum Recall Review

  54. I absolutely love your site.. Excellent colors & theme. Did you
    develop this amazing site yourself? Please reply back as I’m planning to create my
    own personal blog and would love to learn where
    you got this from or just what the theme is named.
    Appreciate it!

  55. Hello very nice blog!! Man .. Beautiful .. Amazing
    .. I’ll bookmark your site and take the feeds also…I am happy to find a lot of useful
    information here in the publish, we want work out more techniques in this regard,
    thanks for sharing.

    Also visit my site – Fast Dash Keto

  56. You’re so awesome! I don’t believe I’ve read through a single thing like this before.

    So great to discover somebody with a few unique thoughts on this
    issue. Really.. thank you for starting this up.
    This web site is one thing that’s needed on the web, someone with a bit of originality!

    Stop by my site … Cognitive IQ Pills

  57. Good – I should certainly pronounce, impressed with
    your site. I had no trouble navigating through all tabs
    and related information ended up being truly easy to do to access.
    I recently found what I hoped for before you know it in the least.
    Quite unusual. Is likely to appreciate it for those who add forums or anything,
    web site theme . a tones way for your customer to communicate.
    Excellent task.

    Here is my webpage :: sylvbuster.free.fr

  58. Today, while I was at work, my sister stole my apple ipad and tested to see if it can survive a 25 foot drop, just so she can be a youtube
    sensation. My iPad is now broken and she has 83 views. I know this is entirely off topic but I had
    to share it with someone!

    My web-site :: Elmo

  59. I beloved as much as you will receive performed right here.
    The sketch is tasteful, your authored material stylish.
    nevertheless, you command get bought an shakiness over that you want be handing over the following.

    unwell without a doubt come further beforehand again as
    exactly the similar just about a lot ceaselessly within case you shield this increase.

    Feel free to surf to my website Ardent Male Enhancement Review

  60. Howdy! Quick question that’s totally off topic. Do you know how to make your site mobile friendly?

    My weblog looks weird when browsing from my apple iphone.
    I’m trying to find a template or plugin that might be able
    to fix this problem. If you have any suggestions, please share.
    Many thanks!

    Here is my webpage – https://yunke029.com/

  61. hello there and thank you for your info – I’ve certainly picked up something new from right here.
    I did however expertise some technical points using this site, as I experienced to reload the site lots
    of times previous to I could get it to load correctly. I had been wondering if your
    hosting is OK? Not that I am complaining, but sluggish loading instances times will
    sometimes affect your placement in google and can damage your high-quality score if ads
    and marketing with Adwords. Anyway I am adding this RSS to my e-mail and could look out for much
    more of your respective fascinating content. Make sure you update this again soon..

    Take a look at my website Rapid Fire Keto Ingredients

  62. Thanks , I’ve just been searching for information approximately this subject for ages
    and yours is the greatest I’ve came upon till now.
    However, what concerning the bottom line? Are you positive
    about the source?

  63. I wanted to draft you that bit of observation in order to thank you as before over the exceptional
    secrets you’ve contributed in this article. This has been quite surprisingly generous with you to present
    extensively precisely what a number of people could possibly have sold as an e book
    to get some dough for their own end, specifically considering the fact that you might well have tried it in the event you desired.
    The pointers in addition acted to provide a fantastic way to be aware that other people have the identical dream like my own to
    understand a lot more with respect to this matter. I believe there are numerous more pleasurable occasions
    in the future for many who discover your blog post.

    Feel free to surf to my web site … http://www.comptine.biz

  64. Hi! Do you know if they make any plugins to assist with Search Engine Optimization? I’m trying to get my blog to rank for some targeted keywords but I’m not seeing very good results.

    If you know of any please share. Cheers!

    Feel free to surf to my webpage Daniele

  65. This is the perfect web site for everyone who would like to understand this
    topic. You know so much its almost tough to argue with you
    (not that I actually will need to…HaHa). You certainly put
    a fresh spin on a topic that’s been discussed for a long time.
    Wonderful stuff, just great!

    My web blog: http://www.a913.vip

  66. I had been honored to obtain a call from a friend as he identified the important recommendations shared on the site.
    Browsing your blog publication is a real amazing experience.
    Many thanks for taking into consideration readers just like
    me, and I would like for you the best of achievements as
    a professional in this topic.

    Here is my webpage :: forum.m2clasic.ro

  67. What i do not realize is if truth be told how you’re now not actually a lot more smartly-preferred than you might be right now.
    You’re so intelligent. You already know therefore significantly in terms of this matter, produced
    me in my opinion believe it from a lot of varied angles.
    Its like men and women don’t seem to be fascinated until it is one thing to do with Girl gaga!
    Your individual stuffs nice. Always take care of it up!

    Also visit my web site: CBD XLT Reviews

  68. Howdy very nice web site!! Man .. Beautiful ..
    Amazing .. I will bookmark your site and take the feeds additionally…I am happy to search out numerous helpful info here in the submit, we want work out extra strategies on this regard, thank you for sharing.

    my blog bbs.hygame.cc

  69. Please let me know if you’re looking for a author for your weblog.
    You have some really great posts and I believe I would be a good asset.
    If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d really like to write some articles for your blog in exchange for a link back
    to mine. Please send me an email if interested.
    Thanks!

    My site: forum.m2clasic.ro

  70. I would like to thank you for the efforts you’ve put in writing this blog.
    I am hoping the same high-grade site post from you
    in the upcoming also. In fact your creative writing skills has
    encouraged me to get my own web site now. Actually the blogging is spreading
    its wings rapidly. Your write up is a great example of it.

    Here is my website: vip5.moisait2021.ru

  71. I was honored to receive a call from a friend immediately he found out the important suggestions shared on the site.

    Browsing your blog write-up is a real amazing experience.
    Thank you for taking into consideration readers much like me, and I want for you
    the best of achievements as being a professional in this field.

    Here is my page: truckersmp.hu

Laisser un commentaire

Votre adresse e-mail ne sera pas publiée. Les champs obligatoires sont indiqués avec *

Résoudre : *
13 − 1 =