Pakistan : Manifestations anti-Français

International

Depuis huit mois, le Pakistan est régulièrement le théâtre de manifestations anti-Français. À l’initiative de cette mobilisation : le parti radical Tehrik-e-Labbaik, qui proteste contre la réponse de la France à la publication de caricatures du prophète Mahomet. La tension est de nouveau montée d’un cran lundi, après l’arrestation du leader du parti. Jeudi, l’ambassade a appelé les ressortissants français à quitter provisoirement le pays. (France 24)

La France au centre de tensions au Pakistan. Jeudi 15 avril, le ministre de l’Intérieur de la république islamique, Sheikh Rashid Ahmed, a annoncé la dissolution du parti Tehrik-e-Labbaik (TLP), un parti islamiste radical qui, depuis plusieurs mois, est à l’initiative de manifestations anti-Français dans le pays. 

Cette annonce intervient après trois jours de violences déclenchées lundi par l’arrestation du leader du parti, Saad Rivzi. C’est dans ce contexte que, vendredi, jour de la grande prière hebdomadaire, le gouvernement pakistanais a bloqué les réseaux sociaux et des applications de messagerie instantanée pendant quelques heures, craignant de nouvelles échauffourées.

“À l’origine, ce mouvement a été créé pour exiger la libération d’un garde du corps accusé d’avoir assassiné le gouverneur du Penjab en 2011”, rappelle Jean-Luc Racine, directeur de recherche émérite au CNRS, spécialiste de l’Inde et du Pakistan, contacté par France 24. Il est devenu un parti en 2015 avec à sa tête, le prêcheur Khadim Hussein Rizvi, père du leader actuel.

Issu de l’école théologique Barelvi, l’école de pensée dominante au Pakistan, ce parti s’est imposé dans le paysage politique en luttant de façon radicale contre le blasphème. Son objectif : réclamer la peine de mort pour quiconque en serait accusé.

Des caricatures de Mahomet au centre des tensions 

Or, la France est devenue la cible du TLP depuis septembre 2020, date de l’ouverture du procès des attentats de Charlie Hebdo. Pour l’occasion, le journal satirique avait en effet décidé de republier symboliquement certaines caricatures du prophète Mahomet. De quoi déclencher l’ire de ce parti extrémiste, passé maître dans l’art d’agiter les foules.

Un mois plus tard, les déclarations d’Emmanuel Macron défendant “le droit à la caricature” après l’assassinat de Samuel Paty ont achevé de mettre le feu aux poudres. 

Dans les semaines qui ont suivi, à l’initiative du parti et à l’instar d’autres pays musulmans, des milliers de personnes sont descendues dans les rues en brûlant des drapeaux français et des portraits du président français. De son côté, le TLP réclamait la rupture des relations diplomatiques entre la France et le Pakistan et le départ de l’ambassadeur de France à Islamabad, Marc Baréty

Le gouvernement pakistanais a, dans un premier temps, signé un accord avec le parti pour apaiser la situation. Il a notamment accepté le boycott des produits français et promis de soumettre au vote du Parlement l’expulsion du diplomate d’ici le 20 avril 2021. 

Une forte capacité de mobilisation

Mais alors que la date butoir approche, le gouvernement pakistanais a pris ses distances avec le parti. Son leader, Saad Rizvi, a été arrêté par les forces de sécurité pakistanaises lundi 12 avril, quelques heures après avoir appelé à une nouvelle marche pour réclamer l’expulsion de l’ambassadeur français. 

Son arrestation a provoqué des émeutes dans les principales villes du pays. Au total, plus de 200 militants du TLP ont été arrêtés au cours d’affrontements avec la police. On dénombre par ailleurs deux morts du côté des policiers et au moins 340 blessés, selon un dernier bilan dressé par l’AFP. 

Si la puissance politique du TLP reste assez limitée – lors des élections législatives de 2018, il n’avait obtenu que 2 millions de voix dans ce pays qui compte plus de 210 millions d’habitants – le parti possède une capacité de mobilisation redoutable. “C’est sa force”, martèle Jean-Luc Racine. “Il peut mobiliser et faire descendre les manifestants dans la rue, bloquant des routes parfois pendant plusieurs jours.”

Depuis 2015, le parti s’illustre ainsi par des actions coup de poing. Il s’était notamment fait connaître lors de l’affaire Asia Bibi. Accusée de blasphème, cette chrétienne avait d’abord été emprisonnée et condamnée à mort en 2010 avant d’être acquittée par la Cour suprême en 2018. Le TLP avait alors organisé d’importantes manifestations pour réclamer sa tête. 

Autre exemple : en 2017, le parti avait réussi à organiser un sit-in de trois semaines à Islamabad pour dénoncer un amendement relatif à la dénomination du prophète dans les textes officiels. 

“Le mouvement est très suivi chez les jeunes, notamment des classes populaires”, explique le spécialiste. “Pour cause, si on regarde le programme du parti, il souhaite, certes, redéfinir la place de l’islam dans le pays, mais aussi s’atteler à la question des inégalités. Cela parle évidemment aux jeunes, précaires, qui ne se retrouvent pas dans le système actuel.”

“Plus qu’une question de relations avec la France, ces tensions relèvent, selon moi, davantage de problématiques de politique interne”, insiste-t-il.

“Gérer la montée de l’extrémisme religieux”

Selon Jean-Luc Racine, cette affaire est par ailleurs révélatrice de la difficulté du gouvernement pakistanais à composer avec ces groupes extrémistes religieux. “Globalement, ce qui se passe aujourd’hui montre l’incapacité du gouvernement d’Imran Khan à négocier avec ces mouvements radicaux”, analyse-t-il. “Il y a toujours un embarras face à ces mouvements. Ils sont populaires auprès de la population. Il est donc difficile d’adopter une réponse ferme.”

Un point de vue partagé par le journaliste pakistanais Zahid Hussain. “Le gouvernement est uniquement parvenu à reporter la crise”, estime-t-il, dans le quotidien anglophone Dawn. “Ce qu’il se passe maintenant était inévitable. Il est effrayant d’observer la manière dont l’administration s’est effondrée face à la violence de la foule. Cela souligne notre échec à gérer la montée de l’extrémisme religieux.”

Alors pourquoi dissoudre ce parti maintenant, après des mois de compromis ? “On ne peut soumettre que des hypothèses”, estime Jean-Luc Racine. “Le Pakistan est souvent pointé du doigt comme étant l’un des pays qui finance le terrorisme. Dissoudre le TLP pourrait permettre de redorer son blason”, suppose-t-il, tout en rappelant qu’il n’y a “pas de logique guerrière derrière le TLP, dans la mesure où ce mouvement n’a rien à voir avec d’autres groupes terroristes présents dans le pays, ni avec les Taliban.”

Lire la suite sur https://www.france24.com/fr/asie-pacifique/20210417

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